History in Umbria
History in Umbria
The Acheans of Umbria had many enemies. The chief among them were the Etruscans, the mysterious people who came probably from the Asia Minor regions. The latter attacked Umbria many times between the years of 700-500 BC and captured several towns and drove the Achaeans out; however, they later re-captured the lost territories and caused the downfall of Etruscans.
At this time the people living in the Samnites, a province in the south of the Italian peninsula were engaged in struggle against the Roman Republic. Umbrites extended their help to them in their conflict. A fierce battle was fought at Sentinum in 295 BC. The Romans were victorious and annexed Umbria as one of their colonies.
In 40 BC Mark Antony, the military commander of Julius Caesar declared war against Octavian (one of the nephews of Julius Caesar). In this war, the Umbrians supported Antony. Unfortunately, Octavian succeeded; he burnt and destroyed Umbria. He then laid the foundation of the acclaimed Roman Empire thus bringing the Roman Republic to an end.
The Second Punic War (referred to as "The War Against Hannibal") lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean regions. Hannibal was a Tunis military commander. He was involved in the outbreak of the Second Punic War or the War against Hannibal, which lasted from 218 to 201 BC.
Toward the end of this war he invaded northern Italy with an army that comprised, besides, soldiers, trained elephants. During this invasion of Italy, he defeated the Romans in a series of battles, including the battle of Lake Trasimene in Umbria. After his victory he ruled over Umbria but could not win over Italians as his subjects. The latter then took courage and invaded Africa that forced Hannibal to return to Tunis.
After the collapse of the Roman empire, Lombards, Longobards, or Longbeards people originally from the northeastern Germany that later migrated to present-day Austria and Hungary, entered the Italian borders, raged fierce battle against the local people and conquered much of the Umbrian territories. They ruled over the conquered areas for many centuries. One of the famous Lombards king was named Wacho who ruled from 510 to 540 AD.
Pope Paul III (1468-1549) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. At this time Umbria was independent territory and ruled over by Baglioni and his family. The Pope raised the tax on salt sold in the area and this, as expected, provoked the Umbrians to revolt against Bagolini family. Pope was expecting this, and he lost no time in dispatching Papal army to attack Perugia. The army won the battle and captured Perugia thus ending Umbria's independence.
Garibaldi, Giuseppe (1807-1882) who originally was from Nice, France, later joined the military engaged in Italian unification. He liberated Umbria and sent the Papal soldiers out. In 1927 the present borders of Umbria were demarcated. The new province of Terni was also added while subtracting Rieti.
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